Error-driven Economy

Jing He and Raul Ionel


Printed Circuit Board (PCB) assemblies are a vital element in nearly all electronic devices and systems, with a notable industry presence in Timișoara. Precise manufacturing and assembly of PCBs are crucial for functional electronics. Despite being a fundamental technique, errors can occur in the manufacturing process, including soldering, which uses high-temperature melted alloys to connect tiny components in everything from LED lights to smartphones and rockets. Although soldering appears straightforward, its alloy melting process is complex and error-prone. Quality inspection and error correction are essential, alongside economic considerations of which errors warrant expensive detection or correction.

‘Error-driven Economy’ features five aluminium alloy frames alongside different materials such as lead alloy, ceramics, and 3D prints, illustrating common soldering errors on PCBs. These errors adhere to internationally recognised electronic assembly standards that regulate soldering shapes, materials, and textures. The designed objects amplify the aesthetic qualities promoted by these standards, inviting connection and resonance with typically emotionless electronic components.


Jing He is a visual artist and educator based in Rotterdam. Her interest in the culture, politics, and history behind various daily objects leads to imaginative visual representations involving various materials and mediums.

Raul Ionel is an associate professor in the Measurements and Optical Electronics Department of the Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications, and Information Technologies, at the Politehnica University of Timișoara. His fields of interest are virtual instrumentation, LabVIEW, MATLAB, data acquisition, AOI, boundary scan, and functional testing.